Cannabidiol has low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors,[25][26] although it can act as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 agonists despite this low affinity.[26] Cannabidiol may be an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[27] It also may act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12.[28] CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist.[29] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[30] The pharmacological effects of CBD may involve PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[7]

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The oral bioavailability of CBD is 13 to 19%, while its bioavailability via inhalation is 11 to 45% (mean 31%).[4][5] The elimination half-life of CBD is 18–32 hours.[6] Cannabidiol is metabolized in the liver as well as in the intestines by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 enzymes, and UGT1A7, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 isoforms.[2] CBD may have a wide margin in dosing.[16]
As we have also seen above, CBD is considered to have wider applications than THC. Since CBD has been much less studied than THC, scientists assume that there are many new applications of CBD that haven’t yet been discovered. On the other hand, THC’s applications are more or less completely explored by now due to all the research on medical marijuana over the past decade.
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Some manufacturers ship CBD products nationally, an illegal action which the FDA did not enforce in 2018, with CBD remaining the subject of an FDA investigational new drug evaluation, and is not considered legal as a dietary supplement or food ingredient as of December 2018.[80][81] Federal illegality has made it difficult historically to conduct research on CBD.[82] CBD is openly sold in head shops and health food stores in some states where such sales have not been explicitly legalized.[83][84]
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^ Nadulski T, Pragst F, Weinberg G, Roser P, Schnelle M, Fronk EM, Stadelmann AM (December 2005). "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract". Ther Drug Monit. 27 (6): 799–810. doi:10.1097/01.ftd.0000177223.19294.5c. PMID 16306858.
To make this more concrete, let’s use an example here. This is a high-CBD hemp oil product made from industrial hemp. It has a concentration of CBD between 18% and 24%. This means that it has 18%–24% parts CBD dissolved in the actual oil, which is composed by other substances. So 18%–24% is pure CBD, and the rest are hemp oil extracts and other fatty acid substances.
^ Jump up to: a b c "FDA warns company marketing unapproved cannabidiol products with unsubstantiated claims to treat cancer, Alzheimer's disease, opioid withdrawal, pain and pet anxiety". US Food and Drug Administration. July 23, 2019. Retrieved July 24, 2019. Unlike drugs approved by the FDA, the manufacturing process of these products has not been subject to FDA review as part of the drug approval process, and there has been no FDA evaluation of whether these products are effective for their intended use, what the proper dosage is, how they could interact with FDA-approved drugs, or whether they have dangerous side effects or other safety concerns.
^ Jump up to: a b c Devinsky, Orrin; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Cross, Helen; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; French, Jacqueline; Hill, Charlotte; Katz, Russell; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Notcutt, William George; Martinez-Orgado, Jose; Robson, Philip J.; Rohrback, Brian G.; Thiele, Elizabeth; Whalley, Benjamin; Friedman, Daniel (May 22, 2014). "Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders". Epilepsia. 55 (6): 791–802. doi:10.1111/epi.12631. PMC 4707667. PMID 24854329.
The oral bioavailability of CBD is 13 to 19%, while its bioavailability via inhalation is 11 to 45% (mean 31%).[4][5] The elimination half-life of CBD is 18–32 hours.[6] Cannabidiol is metabolized in the liver as well as in the intestines by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 enzymes, and UGT1A7, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 isoforms.[2] CBD may have a wide margin in dosing.[16]

Multiple sclerosis (MS). A prescription-only nasal spray product (Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals) containing both 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol has been shown to be effective for improving pain, muscle-tightness, and urination frequency in people with MS. This product is used in over 25 countries outside of the United States. But there is inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of cannabidiol for symptoms of multiple sclerosis when it is used alone. Some early research suggests that using a cannabidiol spray under the tongue might improve pain and muscle tightness, but not muscle spasms, tiredness, bladder control, mobility, or well-being and quality of life in patients with MS.


The passage of the 2018 Farm Bill made it legal to sell hemp and hemp products in the U.S. But that doesn't mean that all hemp-derived cannabidiol products are legal. Since cannabidiol has been studied as a new drug, it can't be legally included in foods or dietary supplements. Also, cannabidiol can't be included in products marketed with therapeutic claims. Cannabidiol can only be included in "cosmetic" products and only if it contains less than 0.3% THC. But there are still products labeled as dietary supplements on the market that contain cannabidiol. The amount of cannabidiol contained in these products is not always reported accurately on the product label. cbd oil
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